What Is Network Scanner: A Technical Guide


In today’s interconnected world, networks play a vital role in facilitating communication and data transfer. However, ensuring the security and reliability of a network can be a challenging task. One important tool in a network administrator’s arsenal is a network scanner. In this comprehensive technical guide, we will explore what a network scanner is, how it works, and its various applications in network security and administration. Let’s dive in!

What is a Network Scanner?

A network scanner is a software tool designed to discover, analyze, and gather information about devices, services, and vulnerabilities present on a computer network. It enables network administrators to assess the security posture of their network and identify potential weaknesses or points of entry for malicious actors.

How Does a Network Scanner Work?

A network scanner operates by sending packets of data to specific IP addresses or ranges of IP addresses within a network. It then analyzes the responses received from the targeted devices to determine their availability, open ports, and potential vulnerabilities. Network scanners can employ various scanning techniques, such as TCP SYN, ICMP, and UDP scans, to gather different types of information.

Types of Network Scans:

  • a. Port Scanning: One common type of network scan is port scanning, which involves probing a network’s devices for open ports. Open ports can indicate running services and potentially vulnerable entry points. Network scanners use techniques like SYN, FIN, or XMAS scans to identify open ports and their associated services.
  • b. Vulnerability Scanning: Vulnerability scanning focuses on identifying potential weaknesses in network devices or software. Network scanners utilize databases of known vulnerabilities to compare against the scanned network, providing administrators with a prioritized list of vulnerabilities that need attention.

Network Scanner Features:

  • a. Host Discovery: Network scanners can perform host discovery scans to identify active devices on a network. This helps administrators maintain an up-to-date inventory and detect unauthorized devices.
  • b. Operating System Detection: By analyzing network responses, a network scanner can determine the operating systems running on target devices. This information is crucial for assessing potential vulnerabilities and tailoring security measures accordingly.

Benefits of Network Scanners:

  • a. Improved Network Security: Network scanners provide valuable insights into potential security vulnerabilities, allowing administrators to take proactive measures to secure their networks.
  • b. Time and Cost Efficiency: By automating the scanning process, network scanners save time and effort that would otherwise be spent manually checking each device for vulnerabilities.

Network Scanner Tools:

Several network scanner tools are available, both open-source and commercial. Some popular examples include:

  • a. Nmap: A widely used and feature-rich network scanner that supports a variety of scanning techniques.
  • b. Nessus: A comprehensive vulnerability scanner that offers in-depth analysis and reporting capabilities.
  • c. OpenVAS: An open-source vulnerability scanner that provides continuous monitoring and assessment of network security.

Practical Use Cases:

  • a. Network Inventory Management: Network scanners help maintain an accurate inventory of devices connected to a network, facilitating efficient network management and troubleshooting.
  • b. Security Audits: By conducting regular scans, network administrators can identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses, allowing them to implement necessary security measures and policies.

Network Scanner Best Practices:

  • a. Obtain Proper Authorization: It is essential to obtain proper authorization before scanning any network to avoid legal and ethical issues.
  • b. Regular Scanning and Updates: Perform regular scans to keep up with the dynamic nature of networks, and keep the network scanner software updated with the latest vulnerability databases.

Network Scanner Deployment:

When deploying a network scanner, it is crucial to consider the network’s size, complexity, and specific requirements. Here are a few key factors to keep in mind:

  • a. Network Topology: Understand the network’s layout and segmentations to determine the most effective placement of the network scanner. Consider installing scanners at critical points, such as entry points or network junctions, to capture comprehensive network data.
  • b. Resource Utilization: Network scanners can consume significant network resources, such as bandwidth and processing power. Ensure that the chosen scanner can handle the network’s size without causing performance issues.
  • c. Scalability: Choose a network scanner that can scale with your network’s growth. As the network expands, the scanner should be able to accommodate the increased number of devices and traffic.

Analyzing Network Scanner Results:

After conducting a network scan, it is essential to analyze the results effectively. Here are some steps to follow:

  • a. Prioritize Findings: Network scanners often generate extensive reports with various findings. Prioritize the vulnerabilities or issues based on their severity and potential impact on the network’s security.
  • b. Remediation Planning: Develop a remediation plan to address the identified vulnerabilities. Determine the necessary actions, such as patching, updating software, or reconfiguring network devices, to mitigate the risks.
  • c. Collaboration: Network scanners’ results should be shared with relevant teams, such as system administrators, network engineers, and security personnel, to ensure a coordinated effort in addressing the identified issues.

Network Scanner Limitations:

While network scanners are powerful tools, they do have certain limitations that should be considered:

  • a. False Positives and Negatives: Network scanners may produce false positives, indicating vulnerabilities that do not exist, or false negatives, failing to detect actual vulnerabilities. It is essential to validate and verify the findings through additional testing and manual analysis.
  • b. Encrypted Traffic: Network scanners are often unable to inspect encrypted traffic, limiting their ability to identify vulnerabilities or analyze encrypted communication.
  • c. Zero-Day Vulnerabilities: Network scanners rely on vulnerability databases, which may not include the latest zero-day vulnerabilities. Regular updates and additional security measures are necessary to mitigate these risks.


Network scanners are indispensable tools for network administrators, providing valuable insights into network security, vulnerabilities, and device management. By deploying, configuring, and utilizing network scanners effectively, administrators can enhance the security posture of their networks and proactively address potential threats. However, it is crucial to acknowledge the limitations and continuously adapt security measures to the evolving threat landscape.

Remember, network scanning should always be conducted ethically and responsibly, with proper authorization and adherence to legal requirements. Regular scanning, analysis, and remediation planning are essential components of a comprehensive network security strategy. By leveraging the power of network scanners, administrators can safeguard their networks and protect them from potential cyber threats.

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